University of North Florida
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Stuart Chalk, Ph.D.
Department of Chemistry
University of North Florida
Phone: 1-904-620-1938
Fax: 1-904-620-3535
Email: schalk@unf.edu
Website: @unf

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Crude

Classification: Oil -> petroleum -> crude

Citations 6

"The Determination Of Lead, Nickel And Vanadium In Saudi Arabian Crude Oil By Sequential Injection Analysis/inductively-coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry"
Talanta 1996 Volume 43, Issue 8 Pages 1313-1319
Hassan M. Al-Swaidana,*

Abstract: Crude oil was mixed with tetralin, Triton X-100, 40% HNO3, 100 ppm in solution and water to give a homogeneous solution. The solution was aspirated into a holding coil in a sequential injection system and a carrier stream (60 µL/s) swept the sample to a coupled ICP-MS instrument (operating conditions tabulated). The method was used to determine Pb, Ni and V with calibration graphs of 0.3-0.81, 3.13-9.4 and 8.8-13.8 µg/g, respectively, and corresponding recoveries of 98.2, 96 and 101.5%. The RSD (n = 3-5) were 4%.
Lead Nickel Vanadium Mass spectrometry Sequential injection Triton X Surfactant

"Flow Injection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometric Determination Of Oil And Greases: Preliminary Microwave-assisted Extraction Studies"
Analyst 1996 Volume 121, Issue 8 Pages 1031-1036
Yasmina Daghbouche, Salvador Garrigues and Miguel de la Guardia

Abstract: Mineral oil, edible oil, gasoline or petroleum samples were dissolved in CCl4. A portion (300 ml) of the resulting solution was injected into a carrier stream of CCl4 at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. The area under the FTIR absorbance spectrum from 3058-2780 cm-1, corrected for a baseline established between 3200 and 2700 cm-1, was used for quantification. The detection limit was 0.6-1.1 mg/ml oils and greases; RSD was 1.4-4.1% (n=10). The throughput was 60 samples/h. The method was also applied to aqueous solutions containing different types of oils, after microwave-assisted extraction of the oil into CCl4 by irradiation at 420 W for 6 min. Results are presented and discussed.
Sample preparation Spectrophotometry Organic phase detection Solvent extraction Microwave

"Biocatalysis And Biorecognition In Nonaqueous Media. Some Perspectives In Analytical Biochemistry"
Microchim. Acta 1995 Volume 120, Issue 1-4 Pages 231-242
Lorenzo Braco

Abstract: A review is presented. The basic principles and advantages of non-aqueous enzymology are outlined and its analytical applications are discussed with reference to batch analysis in organic media, flow injection enzyme reactors operating in organic media, organic-phase enzyme electrodes and enzyme-based gas-phase biosensors. Analytical applications of antibodies and abzymes in non-aqueous media are discussed and the potential of molecular imprinting techniques to generate specific recognition systems is considered. (56 references). Biocatalysis and, to a lesser extent, biorecognition in non-aqueous media (including organic solvents as well as supercritical fluids and gases) constitute at present an exciting research area which has already demonstrated its biotechnological potential in numerous, varied applications. Less attention, however, has been paid to its analytical possibilities, even though many advantages have been postulated and a wide range of poorly water-soluble analytes are present in samples (or waste materials) from food and drink, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, military and other industries. The main approaches, developed in recent years to exploit the use of enzymes, antibodies or antibody mimics in water-restricted environments for analytical purposes, as well as possible future directions are briefly discussed.
Sensor Immobilized enzyme Reverse micelle Review Catalysis

"Online Analyzers: Implementation Of Instrument Technology"
Am. Lab. 1992 Volume 24, Issue 18 Pages 20C-20I
Coates, J.;Reber, S.

Abstract: The application of a NIR instrument to on-line analysis in a petroleum refinery operation is described.
Spectrophotometry Process control Automation

"Flow Injection Analysis Automation With Fluorimetric Detection And Its Application To Vanadium Determination In Petroleum Derivatives"
Analusis 1990 Volume 18, Issue 8 Pages 491-496
Forteza, R.;Oms, M.T.;Cardenas, J.;Cerda, V.

Abstract: A fully automatic fluorimetric FIA system was used to monitor the catalytic auto-oxidation of Na 4,8-diamino-1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate (I) by VV with excitation at 524 nm and emission at 582 nm. The FIA system contained an injection module, a manifold constructed from PTFE tubing (i.d. 0.5 mm), a Perkin-Elmer LS5 fluorimeter and an IBM PC. The sample stream was reacted with a stream of 6N-HCl containing 50 µL of injected 0.1 mM I (0.80 mL min-1 each) in a 4-m straight reactor at 30°C. Calibration graphs were rectilinear for 0.2 to 0.8 and 0.8 to 2 mg L-1 of VV. For 0.4 mg L-1 of VV, the coefficient of variation was 1% (n = 17). The tolerance limits of eighteen ions in the determination of 0.5 mg L-1 of VV are tabulated, the most serious interference being observed for Fe3+, Ce4+ and Al3+. The method was applied to Boscan crude and heavy gas oil samples (procedures described).
Vanadium Fluorescence Automation Calibration Interferences Catalysis

"Experimental Aspects Of Partitioning Tracer Tests For Residual Oil Saturation Determination With FIA-based Laboratory Equipment"
SPE Reservoir Engineering 1990 Volume 5, Issue 2 Pages 239-244
W.A.I. Knaepen | Robert Tijssen | E.A. van den Bergen

Abstract: Partitioning tracer tests are used to determine residual oil saturation (ROS). At Koninklijke/Shell Laboratorium, Amsterdam, laboratory equipment based on the flow injection analysis (FIA) method has been constructed for rapid (within 2 hours) and accurate (better than 8%) determination of the equilibrium partition coefficient of tracers between crude oil and brine under simulated reservoir conditions. The apparatus makes possible investigation of the influence of all relevant parameters on the partition coefficient: tracer type and concentration, crude oil type, pressure (up to 34 MPa [4,930 psi]), GOR'S, temperature (up to 150 deg. C [302 deg. F]), and brine psi]), GOR'S, temperature (up to 150 deg. C [302 deg. F]), and brine salinity. The FIA equipment has been critically evaluated with model compounds. Its versatility has been verified with experimental results obtained on dead and live crudes.
Acetic acid 1-Pentanol Heated reaction