University of North Florida
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Stuart Chalk, Ph.D.
Department of Chemistry
University of North Florida
Phone: 1-904-620-1938
Fax: 1-904-620-3535
Email: schalk@unf.edu
Website: @unf

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Fog

Classification: Environmental -> water -> fog

Citations 4

"Quantitative Determination Of Aqueous-phase Ozone By Chemiluminescence Using Indigo-5,5'-disulfonate"
Anal. Chem. 1989 Volume 61, Issue 6 Pages 619-623
Koji Takeuchi and Takashi Ibusuki

Abstract: The cited reagent (I; C. I. Food Blue 1) was used to determine O3 in aqueous solution from the chemiluminescence generated in a continuous-flow system (diagram presented). The optimum reagent composition was 10 mg L-1 of I in 2 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.2). The calibration graph was rectilinear from 25 ng L-1 to 410 µg L-1 of O3; the limit of detection was 6 ng l-1, three orders of magnitude lower than that by spectrophotometry with use of I. The method should be applicable to environmental samples such as rain and fog.
Ozone Chemiluminescence Buffer Method comparison Optimization

"Determination Of Ammonium Ion In Rain-water And Fog Water By Flow Injection Analysis Wtih Chemiluminescence Detection"
Anal. Chem. 1993 Volume 65, Issue 23 Pages 3489-3492
Xincheng Hu, Norimichi Takenaka, Shiro Takasuna, Masaru Kitano, Hiroshi Bandow, Yasuaki Maeda, and Masaharu Hattori

Abstract: Rain-water was collected in a funnel-topped polypropylene bottle and fog water was collected from flowing air on PTFE strands (0.435 mm). Samples were filtered and 1.2 mL was injected into a stream (10 ml/min) of water, which was merged with a stream (10 ml/min) of NaBrO solution (0.3% of Br in 1 M NaOH/1 M NaBr) in an arrangement of concentric tubes. The resulting chemiluminescence was measured in a scroll glass tube (15 cm x 2 mm i.d.) similar to that of Burguera et al. (Anal. Chim. Acta, 1980, 114, 209), a glass 690 nm filter being placed between the cell and the photomultiplier tube to remove interfering emission from, e.g., 5 µM-urea and 1 ppm of humic acid. The maximum chemiluminescence developed within 20 ms of mixing the reactants; pH was without effect in the range 3-11. The calibration graph was linear for 0.01-1 mM NH4 with a detection limit of 6.1 µM. Results obtained agreed well with those from ion chromatographic and indophenol spectrophotometric methods. Reaction between ammonia and hypobromite in alkaline solution was found to give chemiluminescence. The maximum wavelength of the chemiluminescence is 710 nm. This chemiluminescence reaction has been used for the determination of ammonium ion concentration in rainwater and fogwater with a flow injection analysis system. The detection limit of ammonium ion was 6.1 10^-6 mol/L (3 RSD). The dominant components in rainwater such as NO3-, SO42-, and Cl-, do not interfere with the determination, but humic acid and urea do. The interference can be removed by inserting a glass filter between the chemiluminescence cell and the photomultiplier tube, because the peak wavelengths of the emission are different for both chemiluminescence species. Rainwater and fogwater samples can be rapidly determined by this method without any pretreatment. The results determined by the present method were in good agreement with the ion chromatographic method and the indophenol spectrophotometric method. Copyright 1993, American Chemical Society. .
Ammonium Chemiluminescence Method comparison Interferences

"Amperometric Flow Injection Technique For Determination Of Hydrogen Peroxide And Sulfur(IV) In Atmospheric Liquid Water"
Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 1989 Volume 335, Issue 8 Pages 919-923
I. G. R. Gutz and D. Klockow

Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide and S(IV) were determined in atmospheric water (200 µL) by flow injection analysis with electrochemical oxidation in a specially designed micro-cell (described and illustrated) with an alkaline carrier stream for H2O2 and an acidic carrier stream for S. Differential measurements before and after addition of catalase or sulfite oxidase were taken using an amperometric detector. Sample throughput was 30 h-1. The electroactive species could be determined from 20 nM (detection limit) to mM levels. The method was applied to rain, snow, fog and cryosampled atmospheric water vapor. Sulfur(IV) present as hydroxymethanesulfonate or in the form of other carbonyl adducts was determined after alkaline decomposition to liberate SO32-.
Hydrogen peroxide Sulfur Amperometry Enzyme

"Analysis Of Aldehydes In Cloud- And Fog-water Samples By HPLC With A Post-column Reaction Detector"
Environ. Sci. Technol. 1989 Volume 23, Issue 5 Pages 556-561
Manabu Igawa, J. William Munger, and Michael R. Hoffmann

Abstract: Samples were collected as described previously (Jacob et al., Anal. Abstr., 1986, 48, 5H1), and were analyzed on a column (25 cm x 4.6 mm) of Spherisorb ODS-2 (5 µm), operated at 30°C, with a guard column of Adsorbosphere C18, aqueous 40 or 1% acetonitrile as mobile phase (0.5 mL min-1), and post-column reaction with 3-methylbenzothiazolin-2-one hydrazone (details given) before detection at 640 nm. Detection limits were 42 nM to 9 µM for 100 µL injections. Calibration graphs of peak height vs. concentration were rectilinear. Results showed good agreement with those obtained by using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, but the cited method was less cumbersome and less time consuming.
Aldehydes HPLC Spectrophotometry Post-column derivatization