University of North Florida
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Stuart Chalk, Ph.D.
Department of Chemistry
University of North Florida
Phone: 1-904-620-1938
Fax: 1-904-620-3535
Website: @unf

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Parenteral Fluid

Classification: Biological fluid -> parenteral

Citations 3

"On-line Preconcentration System For Aluminum Determination In Parenteral Solutions Using Flow Injection Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry"
J. Trace Microprobe Tech. 2000 Volume 18, Issue 3 Pages 431-439
Sombra, L.L.;Wuilloud, R.G.;Olsina, R.A.;Fernandez, L.P.;Martinez, L.D.

Abstract: An on-line aluminum pre-concentration and determination system implemented with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) associated to flow injection (FI) was studied. For the retention of aluminum, 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) and Amberlite XAD-7 were used, at pH 8.5. Aluminum was removed from the micro-column with nitric acid. The detection limit value for the pre-concentration of 100 mt of aqueous solution of Al was 0.23 ng.mL-1. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 5 ng mL-1 Al levels was 2.4% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated with the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the pre-concentration system for aluminum was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 10 µg.mL-1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of aluminum in parenteral solution samples.
Aluminum Spectrophotometry Preconcentration Amberlite 8-Hydroxyquinoline

"Continuous Sample Recirculation In An Opened-loop Multicommutated Flow System"
Anal. Chim. Acta 1998 Volume 377, Issue 1 Pages 103-110
Rui A. S. Lapa*, José L. F. C. Lima, Boaventura F. Reis and João L. M. Santos

Abstract: A continuous circulating multicommutated flow system based on an opened-loop configuration is proposed. The sample is inserted into the flow system and continuously recirculated until a suitable dilution level is attained, which is permanently surveyed by including the detector in the circular reactor. A continuous removal of the highly dispersed front and trailing zones of the sample plug improves dilution efficiency. The chromogenic reagent used as carrier solution is permanently renewed, which contributes to a constant renewal of the reaction zone increasing the reaction rate by reducing its dependence on the dispersion at the sample/reagent interface. The developed methodology was tested in the determination of chloride in parenteral solutions by the formation of the Fe (III) thiocyanate complex with expansion of the linear range of determination up to 10,000 mg L-1. Results were reproducible (relative standard deviation <1.8%) and in agreement with those obtained by the conventional procedure.
Chloride Spectrophotometry Multicommutation Closed loop Dilution Chromogenic reagent Method comparison Complexation

"Potentiometric Determination Of Chloride In Parenteral And Haemodialysis Solutions By FIA"
Il Farmaco 1997 Volume 52, Issue 2 Pages 127-130
Lapa, Rui A. S.; Lima, Jose L. F. C.; Barrado, Enrique; Vela, Henar

Abstract: To determine chloride in parenteral solutions, sample (200 µL) was injected into a stream (4 ml/min) of 0.1 M KNO3/0.1 mM NaCl for 50-fold dilution prior to merging with a similar carrier stream. The flow passed through a mixing coil (50 cm) prior to potentiometric detection using a tubular chloride ISE based on a homogenous crystalline membrane. To determine chloride in haemodialysis solution a similar manifold was used, but with passage through a dialysis unit which enabled 200-fold dilutions to be performed to adjust the sample to within the linear range of the ISE, (0.1 mM to 0.2M). The dialysis solution was 0.1 M KNO3/0.1 mM NaCl. Recoveries were >=97% and RSD were 1.8-5.3%. Results agreed with those obtained using conventional methodology.
Chloride Potentiometry Electrode Dialysis Method comparison