University of North Florida
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Stuart Chalk, Ph.D.
Department of Chemistry
University of North Florida
Phone: 1-904-620-1938
Fax: 1-904-620-3535
Email: schalk@unf.edu
Website: @unf

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Dialysis Fluid

Classification: Biological fluid -> dialysis

Citations 12

"Bioanalytical Flow Injection System For Control Of Hemodialysis Adequacy"
Anal. Chim. Acta 2000 Volume 418, Issue 2 Pages 213-224
Robert Koncki, Anna Radomska and Stanisław Głąb

Abstract: Potentiometric urea biosensor based on ammonium-ion selective electrode has been used in simple flow injection bioanalytical system for the determination of removed urea in effluent Liquid during hemodialysis treatment. The interferences from other components of the spent dialysate (mainly potassium ions) were eliminated using reference cell detector with non-sensitized ammonium-ion electrode. The methods of signal correction were discussed. The presented flow injection analysis (FIA) system allowing monitoring of urea content in the range of concentrations correspond well with the amount of the analyte in real samples (1-20 mmol/l). Around 25 samples per hour can be analyzed. Due to long operational Life-time of the applied biosensor the FIA system can be useful over 3 weeks. The presented biosensor/FIA system has been successfully applied for the biomedical control of real clinical processes. The results of analysis are useful for the evaluation of the clinical parameters of urea kinetic modeling: parameters KT/V, urea reduction ratio (URR), percentage removal of urea (PRU) and total urea removal (TUR) for intradialytic intervals and urea generation rate (G) and protein catabolic rate (PCRn) for interdialytic intervals. These biomedical parameters are used for describing the adequacy of hemodialysis therapy.
Urea Potentiometry Electrode Sensor Optimization Kinetic Dialysis

"Flow Injection And Liquid Chromatographic Determination Of Aluminum Based On Its Fluorimetric Reaction With 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic Acid In A Micellar Medium"
Anal. Chim. Acta 1989 Volume 225, Issue 2 Pages 339-350
José Ignacio Garciá Alonso, Angeles López Garciá, Alfredo Sanzmedel and Elisa Blanco Gonzales, Les Ebdon and Phil Jones

Abstract: Reaction of Al with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (I) in cationic micelles of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (II) formed a strongly fluorescent compound and allowed continuous determination of Al in flowing systems. At pH 6.3, with 0.2 mM I and 2 mM II, the detection limit for Al by flow injection analysis was 0.1 ng mL-1. The calibration graph was rectilinear for 100 ng mL-1, and the peak-height precision was 2% for 10 ng mL-1. Interference was greatly decreased compared with the batch method. The reaction was applied to the post-column detection of Al in fresh and high-salinity waters and dialysis fluid by ion chromatography, and for speciation of Al in serum after separation of proteins by ion-exchange LC.
Aluminum Fluorescence Interferences Buffer Speciation 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid Dialysis Micelle

"Phosphorescence Detection In Flowing Systems: Selective Determination Of Aluminum By Flow Injection Liquid Room-temperature Phosphorimetry"
Anal. Chim. Acta 1990 Volume 234, Issue 1 Pages 233-238
Yi-Ming Liu, M. R. Fernandez de la Campa, M. E. Diaz Garcia and A. Sanz-Medel

Abstract: Aluminum was determined by micelle-stabilized phosphorimetry. A three-line flow injection manifold was used, involving 1 M acetate buffer (pH 5.5) containing Na2SO3 as carrier stream, 5 mM ferron in the buffer as chelating agent, and 0.2 M hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide in the buffer as stabilizer. Phosphorescence was measured at 596 nm (excitation at 400 nm). The calibration graph was rectilinear for 4 µg mL-1. The coefficient of variation were 2.7% for 1 µg mL-1 (n = 10). The method was reasonably selective; >20 common species did not interfere or could be masked. The method was applied without sample pre-treatment to tap-water and dialysis fluid.
Aluminum Phosphorescence Selectivity Buffer Chelation Calibration Interferences Dialysis Micelle

"Multicomponent Flow Injection Based Analysis With Diode-array Detection And Partial-least-squares Multivariate Calibration Evaluation. Rapid Determination Of Calcium(II) And Magnesium(II) In Waters And Dialysis Liquids"
Anal. Chim. Acta 1996 Volume 320, Issue 2-3 Pages 177-183
O. Hernández, F. Jiménez, A. I. Jiménez, J. J. Arias,* and J. Havel

Abstract: The FIA manifold comprised 0.5 mm i.d. PTFE capillaries, a 4-way injection valve and a peristaltic pump. Samples were injected in to 2 mM 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol in 0.1 M Tris buffer of pH 9.6 (2 ml/min) and after passage through a reaction coil (80 cm) spectra were recorded on a diode array spectrophotometer every 1s. A partial least squares method was used for calibration (details given). The system was used to determine Ca and Mg in potable waters and dialysis liquids and in mixtures of Ca, Mg and Cu. Satisfactory results were obtained with a scanning time equivalent to 21 s and wavelengths of 510 nm to 552 nm. Sample throughput was 30 per hour.
Calcium(2+) Magnesium(II) Spectrophotometry Partial least squares Buffer Multicomponent Dialysis Multivariate calibration

"Determination Of Highly Concentrated Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium And Calcium In Dialysis Solution With Flow Injection Online Dilution And Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry"
Anal. Chim. Acta 1996 Volume 331, Issue 3 Pages 263-270
T. Guo*, J. Baasner and S. McIntosh

Abstract: A cascade dilution manifold was used for the online dilution of samples for flame AAS. A 40-50 µL sample was injected into a carrier stream which was passed through a series of stream-splitting and stream-merging junctions. The spitting/merging operations were carried out using all eight channels of a peristaltic pump. The dilution factor was controlled by the flow rate of the carrier stream and by changing the manifold configuration. Dilution factors of 10^-3000 were achieved while maintaining a high rate of sample throughput. The manifold was used to dilute dialysis solution 1000-fold prior to analysis for Na (330.2 nm), K (766.5 nm), Mg (285.2 nm) and Ca (442.7 nm) by AAS with an air-acetylene flame. The RSD (n = 11) was 2% and the sampling frequency was 70/h. Results agreed with those obtained using a manual method.
Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Spectrophotometry Method comparison Sample splitting Cascade dilution Dialysis

"Online Alumininium Preconcentration On Chelating Resin And Its Flow Injection Analysis - Spectrofluorimetric Determination In Foods And Dialysis Concentrates"
Talanta 1991 Volume 38, Issue 12 Pages 1387-1392
P. Fernández, C. Pérez Conde, A. Gutiérrez and C. Cámara*,

Abstract: A selective and sensitive technique whereby Al is complexed with 5,7-dibromoquinolin-8-ol and extracted into ethyl ether before separation from interferants in a chelating micro-column and spectrofluorimetric determination at 525 nm (excitation at 400 nm). Other complexes and solvent systems are considered but are found to be inferior. Batch- and flow injection methods are studied and the latter is found to be the most selective. Optimum conditions are 0.05 M acetic acid buffer of pH 5.5 with complex concentration. in ethyl ether of 0.05%, aqueous and organic flow rates of 0.36 and 0.62 mL min-1, respectively, for a 185 µL sample injection volume. The calibration graph is rectilinear from 1 to 50 ng mL-1 of Al; detection limit is 0.3 ppb Al with coefficient of variation at 4 ppb of 3%. The method is applied in dialysis fluids, foods and tap water.
Aluminum Fluorescence Chelation Column Preconcentration PPB Interferences Dialysis Resin

"Spectrofluorimetric Optosensing Of Aluminum In A Flow Injection System: Determination Of The Aluminum In Dialysis Fluids And Concentrates"
Analyst 1990 Volume 115, Issue 5 Pages 575-579
Maria Rosario Pereiro García, Marta Elena Díaz García and Alfredo Sanz-Medel

Abstract: Samples (1 ml) in ammonium acetate buffer solution (pH 2.5) were passed through a column containing Kelex 100 adsorbed on Amberlite XAD-7 (50 to 100 mesh) to remove Fe(III), Cu(II) and Cr(III), then at pH 5 passed through the flow cell also containing the treated resin. The fluorescence at 512 nm was measured via an optical fiber (excitation at 420 nm). The method was successfully applied to determining Al in dialysis fluids and concentrates.
Aluminum Fluorescence Optosensing Dialysis Column Amberlite Flowcell Optical fiber Resin

"Validation Of An Automatic Urea Analyser Used In The Continuous Monitoring Of Haemodialysis Parameters"
Analyst 1996 Volume 121, Issue 7 Pages 959-964
M. Jurkiewicz, S. Solé, J. Almirall, M. García, S. Alegret and E. Martínez-Fàbregas

Abstract: The performance of an automated urea analyzer., based on a flow injection system incorporating an immobilized urease reactor with potentiometric detection, was evaluated for the monitoring of haemodialysis parameters. The analyzer. was used to measure the urea concentration in haemodialysis effluents online. A mathematical model was employed to process the data and to calculate the dialysis parameters, viz., dialysis delivery (KT/V) and protein catabolism (PCRn). The results obtained were compared with those obtained by the method traditionally employed in hospital laboratories. No significant differences were found between the two sets of results.
Urea Potentiometry Immobilized enzyme Modeling Method comparison Dialysis

"Determination Of Aluminum In Dialyzates And Human Serum By Flow Injection Analysis And Liquid Chromatography With Fluorimetric Detection"
Chem. Anal. 1998 Volume 43, Issue 2 Pages 215-224
Kokot, Z.;Pawlaczyk, J.

Abstract: A flow injection analysis and ion chromatography - fluorimetric method is described for the determination of aluminum in dialyzates and body fluids, based on its complexation with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid in the presence of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. In the flow injection analysis the fluorimetric reagent consisted of HQS (0.003 mol/L) and CTAB (0.004 mol/L) in acetate buffer pH = 5.15, at a flow rate 0.5 mL/min. Ion chromatography was performed using Dionex CG2 cation exchange guard column and potassium sulfate (0.1 mol/L, pH = 3.0) as a mobile phase. Serum protein separation was achieved using Superdex 200 HR 10/30 column and phosphate buffer as an eluent. There was a good agreement between the values obtained by this method and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.
Aluminum HPIC Sample preparation Fluorescence Complexation 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid Method comparison

"Design And Development Of An Amperometric Biosensor For Acetylcholine Determination In Brain Microdialyzates"
Electrochim. Acta 1998 Volume 43, Issue 23 Pages 3541-3554
N. Larsson, T. Ruzgas, L. Gorton, M. Kokaia, P. Kissinger and E. Csöregi*

Abstract: An amperometric three-enzyme based biosensor for determination of acetylcholine has been developed with possible use for monitoring of brain microdialyzates by co-immobilizing acetylcholinesterase (AchE), choline oxidase (ChOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in an Os-based redox polymer on solid graphite electrodes. The redox hydrogel was formed by crosslinking the appropriate enzymes and the Os-polymer (PVI13-dmeOs) working as a non-diffusing mediator between the electrode and HRP. The sensor was used in a flow injection system at an applied potential of -50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. A detection limit of 0.3 µM (twice the S/N ratio) for acetylcholine was obtained, thus representing a sensitive detection system. By adapting the electrode into a microsystem, the release of acetylcholine in real samples (rat brain dialyzates) could be shown. Electrode design, optimization steps and characteristics for the optimized electrode configuration are presented.
Acetylcholine Amperometry Sensor Electrode Electrode Optimization Apparatus Detector

"Portable System For Simultaneous Measurements Of Blood Electrolytes"
Proc. Eur. Dial. Transplant Assoc. 1980 Volume 17, Issue 1 Pages 179-185
J Harrow, J Janata, R L Stephen, W J Kolff

Abstract: Miniature, rugged Chemfet sensors have been developed by coating field-effect transistors with ion-sensitive membranes. These sensors have been combined with a flow injection analysis manifold to demonstrate feasibility of a small portable system capable of simultaneous determinations in 10 seconds of hydrogen, potassium and calcium ion activities in 20 µL samples of whole blood, serum or dialysate.
Electrolytes Calcium Potassium pH Field effect transistor Potentiometry Portable

"Flow Injection Analysis With Chemically Sensitive Field Effect Transistor Detector For Monitoring Potassium Concentration In Dialysate"
Trans. Am. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs 1985 Volume 31, Issue 1 Pages 416-418
Harrow J; Janata J. (SFS)

Abstract: An ideal analytical system for the biochemical monitoring of the hemodialysis procedure would be applicable to either blood or aqueous samples derived therefrom (dialysate or ultrafiltrate ). A Flow Injection Analysis(FIA) system using a chemically sensitive field effect transistor (CHEMFET) as a detector was recently described1. In that article, many of the technical problems associated with direct measurement on blood were presented. Another approach is to obtain information about blood chemistries indirectly by measuring either ultrafiltrate or dialysate. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the accuracy of the FIA/CHEMFET system for determination of potassium in dialysate.
Potassium Field effect transistor Dialysis