University of North Florida
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Stuart Chalk, Ph.D.
Department of Chemistry
University of North Florida
Phone: 1-904-620-1938
Fax: 1-904-620-3535
Email: schalk@unf.edu
Website: @unf

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Whisky

Classification: Beverage -> alcoholic -> whisky

Citations 4

"Analytical Possibilities Of Microelectrode Use For Stripping Voltammetry"
Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 1994 Volume 349, Issue 8-9 Pages 646-649
Frank-Michael Matysik Contact Information, Petra Gläser and Gerhard Werner

Abstract: A microelectrode capillary flow injection system (cf Matysik and Werner, Analyst (London), 1993, 118, 1523) was used to determine Pb2+ in 1.3 µL of water giving a linear calibration range of 10^-95 µg/l, a detection limit of 6 µg/l, and an RSD (n = 8) for 20 µg/l of Pb2+ of 3.2%. The use of hemispherical or disc Pt/Hg electrodes in anodic differential pulse stripping-voltammetric determination of 1 mg/l of Pb2+ in 1 mM HNO3 with deposition for 2 min at -1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, scan rate 10 mV/s and pulse amplitude 40 mV was studied. For 25-60 µm diameter disc micro-electrodes the RSD obtained without stirring during accumulation (0.38-0.76%) were lower than those obtained with stirring at 1000 or 2000 rpm (0.72-1.67%). The peak heights obtained using quiescent accumulation were significantly less than those obtained with stirring for larger electrodes but for micro-electrodes with diameter 30 µm these peak height differences were slight. The use of micro-electrodes to determine low µg/l levels of Cu2+ in whisky and Cd2+ and Pb2+ in drinking water is also described.
Cadmium(2+) Copper(II) Lead(2+) Voltammetry Electrode

"Potentiometric Determination Of Ethanol In Alcoholic Beverages Using A Flow Injection Analysis System Equipped With A Gas Diffusion Unit With A Microporous Poly(tetrafluoriethylene) Membrane"
Anal. Sci. 1990 Volume 6, Issue 4 Pages 541-546
H. OHURA, T. IMATO, Y. ASANO, S. YAMASAKI and N. ISHIBASHI

Abstract: The method involves the oxidation with K2Cr2O7 of ethanol permeating through a porous membrane, the reduction of unconsumed Cr2O72- with Fe2+ in a flow injection system, and the determination of the Fe3+ produced with a redox electrode. A diagram is presented of the flow injection manifold equipped with a gas diffusion separation unit. Results agreed with those obtained by a specific gravity method and by GC. The method is useful for application to alcoholic beverages owing to its high selectivity, high throughput, low cost and simplicity of operation.
Ethanol Potentiometry GC Gas diffusion Microporous membrane Redox Selectivity Heated reaction

"Spectrophotometric Determination Of Ethanol Based On Coloration Of Tetrabromophenolphthalein Ethyl Ester In Water - Alcohol Mixed Solvent"
Bunseki Kagaku 1988 Volume 37, Issue 6 Pages 301-305
Hosoi, Y.;Motomizu, S.

Abstract: The method is based on the color change of protonated tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester(I) in acidic solution containing Triton X-100 on addition of alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol. The method was applied in flow injection spectrophotometric determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages, e.g., sake and whisky, pre-treated with activated carbon. Sample solution (100 µL) was injected into a carrier stream of water (0.8 mL min-1) which was then mixed with reagent solution containing 20 µM-I, 0.02% of Triton X-100 and 0.08 M acetate buffer (pH 4.4) and passed through a reaction coil before detection at 590 nm. The sampling rate was 45 h-1 without sample pre-treatment.
Ethanol Spectrophotometry Surfactant Triton X

"Determination Of Ethanol In Alcoholic Beverages By Gas Diffusion/flow Injection Analysis"
Bunseki Kagaku 1988 Volume 37, Issue 10 Pages T105-T108
Imato, T.;Ohura, H.;Asano, Y.;Yamasaki, S.;Ishibashi, N.

Abstract: The method involved use of a gas diffusion unit (illustrated), equipped with a poly(substituted acetylene) - polysiloxane copolymer membrane. Sample solution (140 µL) was injected into a carrier water stream, which was passed through one compartment of the gas diffusion unit at 70°C. Ethanol(I) diffused across the membrane, where it was absorbed by a carrier stream of water. This stream was mixed successively with ones of K2Cr2O7 solution, at 70°C, and of Fe(II) solution, and Fe(III) formed was determined by measurement of peak potential. Peak height was rectilinearly related to I concentration. in the range 5 to 30%. In the determination of 16% of I, the coefficient of variation (n = 6) was 1.9%. Sugars, amino-acids and carboxylic acids did not interfere. The method was applied in the analysis of sake, shochu and whisky.
Ethanol Potentiometry Gas diffusion Heated reaction Interferences Silicone membrane