University of North Florida
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Stuart Chalk, Ph.D.
Department of Chemistry
University of North Florida
Phone: 1-904-620-1938
Fax: 1-904-620-3535
Email: schalk@unf.edu
Website: @unf

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Alloy

Classification: Alloy -> aluminum

Citations 14

"Analysis Of Aluminum Content In Aluminum Alloy Using Electrography And Flow Injection Analysis"
Am. Lab. 1999 Volume 31, Issue 21 Pages 26-28
Zhang X., Jiang, X., Liu, M., and Kuang, K.

Abstract: Electrography, first developed by Glazuaov and Fritz,1 is an analytical method used to identify and determine solid substances. It has been used for more than 60 years and was frequently used in the 1950s. However, with the development of modern analysis techniques such as laser technology, electron fault detection, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, electrography is now rarely used because it depends on the color that develops directly on the filter paper after the ions have been transferred onto it. This method is used mainly for qualitative analysis rather than exact quantitative analysis. Particularly in multicomponent specimens, the large number of interferents always have an effect on the exact quantity of the trace components. Therefore, use of electrography has been severely limited up to now.
Aluminum Electrochemical analysis Optimization

"Online Electrolytic Dissolution Of Solid Metal Samples And Determination Of Copper In Aluminum Alloys By Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry"
Anal. Chim. Acta 1991 Volume 243, Issue 1 Pages 65-69
Dongxing Yuan, Xiaoru Wang, Pengyuan Yang and Benli Huang

Abstract: The described flow injection system for the preparation and analysis of alloy samples included a PTFE block as the electrolysis cell (thickness 0.10 cm, width 0.20 cm, length 1.3 cm) with a Au film cathode, separated from the alloy sample as the anode, by a piece of silicone rubber with a central slot. AAS determination of Cu in Al alloys was performed at 324.8 nm with use of an air - acetylene flame. The effects of electrolyte composition and electrolysis parameters on sample dissolution were studied. Of several electrolytes tested, 0.2 to 1.0 M HNO3 was superior with regard to both sample dissolution and Cu determination. Calibration ranges were rectilinear. The detection limit depended upon the detector sensitivity and could be improved by increasing the electrolysis time or current. The reproducibilities were ~4% and 5% for the same and different sampling points on the alloy sample, respectively.
Copper Spectrophotometry

"Stopped-flow Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method For The Simultaneous Determination Of Iron, Titanium And Vanadium"
Anal. Chim. Acta 1993 Volume 276, Issue 2 Pages 419-424
Jianhuan Wang* and Ronghuan He

Abstract: The carrier solution was water (adjusted to pH 2.1 with HCl) containing 0.1% of starch; after injection of the sample it was mixed with 36 mM KI and then with 4.2 mM Cr(VI) and the rate of formation of the colored product was measured at 590 nm by taking measurements at 5, 10 and 20 s after injection. The calibration graphs were rectilinear up to 2.2, 3.1 and 1.8 µg mL-1 for Fe(II), Ti(III) and V(IV), respectively, and the corresponding detection limits were 12, 20 and 18 ng mL-1. Results for the determination of Fe, Ti and V in an aluminum alloy agreed well with those obtained by AAS; the coefficient of variation for each metal was ~4%. The effects of diverse ions on the determination are also reported.
Iron(2+) Titanium(III) Vanadium(IV) Spectrophotometry Stopped-flow Simultaneous analysis Method comparison Interferences Kinetic

"Novel Ferroin Membrane Sensor For Potentiometric Determination Of Iron"
Talanta 1994 Volume 41, Issue 6 Pages 891-899
Saad S. M. Hassan* and Sayed A. M. Marzouk,

Abstract: Sodium tetraphenylborate solution (10 mM) and 10 mM ferroin [tris-(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II)] were mixed for 5 min and the precipitate was collected, washed with water, dried for 24 h and finely ground. The powder was mixed with 2-nitrophenyl phenyl ether, PVC and THF, the solvent evaporated overnight and the resulting 0.1 mm thick membrane was fitted into a sandwich FIA cell. A Ag/AgCl internal reference wire electrode was immersed in a 10 mM ferroin/10 mM NaCl (1:1) internal reference solution The test solution was injected into a stream of 5 mM 1,10-phenanthroline and 10% hydroxylammonium chloride in 0.1 M acetate buffer of pH 4.7 in a FIA system, the solution passed through a mixing coil into a sandwich cell. The calibration graph was linear for 1-100 µM-ferroin, allowing the determination of total Fe. Fe(II) was determined batchwise by the omission of the hydroxylammonium chloride and the addition of EDTA. The removal of interfering anions is discussed. The method was applied to the determination of Fe in tap, underground, sea and mineral water, Al- and Cu-based alloys, cement, rocks and pharmaceutical preparations (details given). The recovery of 300 µg of Fe was 101.9% with RSD (n = 10) of 1.1%.
Iron Electrode Sensor Potentiometry Membrane Interferences

"Expansion Of Dynamic Range Of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry By An Efficient Flow Injection Dilution System Based On Dispersion Of Microlitre-volume Samples"
Anal. Chem. 1993 Volume 65, Issue 13 Pages 1682-1688
Zhaolun Fang, Bernhard Welz, and Michael Sperling

Abstract: The system incorporated two computer-controlled stepper-motor-driven peristaltic pumps. One of these was used for the sample solution; by varying the pump speed or metering time, the solution (0.7-35 µL) was injected into a 100 µL loop. The other pump was used for the diluent; both pumps made use of 0.25-mm-bore tubing. The sample and diluent (carrier) were mixed in tubes (160 cm x 1.3 mm), which were either coiled or randomly knotted. The performance was tested by the dilution of 0.1% Mg2+ solution, with measurement at 285.2 nm. With a sample volume of 0.7 µL and a dilution factor of 1,330, the RSD was 1.8%. With a sampling pump speed of 10 rpm and sampling times of >2 s (volume >1.4 µL), the RSD were 0.5-0.6%. Sampling frequencies of 60-100/h were possible, even at the highest dilutions. The use of different dilution factors made it possible to vary the rectilinear working range. The method was further tested by dissolving Al reference alloy BAM-206 (1 g) in 6 M HCl (10 ml), diluting the solution to 100 mL and analyzing the solution directly with 1.4 µL samples. The Mg content found was (7.20 ± 0.12)%, compared with the certified value of 7.17%.
Magnesium Spectrophotometry Linear dynamic range Dilution Reference material Knotted reactor

"Determination Of Trace Concentrations Of Bismuth By Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic-emission Spectrometry With Hydride Generation"
Spectrochim. Acta B 1987 Volume 42, Issue 1-2 Pages 119-128
Taketoshi Nakahara, Kuniyuki Nakanishi and Tamotsu Wasa

Abstract: The continuous-flow hydride-generation apparatus used was as described previously (Anal. Chim. Acta, 1981, 131, 73; Appl. Spectrosc., 1983, 37, 539). The sample solution in 1 M HCl and 1% NaBH4 solution in 1% NaOH were pumped at 16 and 5.5 mL min-1, respectively, and the BiH3 evolved was carried to the ICP in a stream of Ar for the emission intensity at 223.06 nm to be measured. The instrumental coefficient of variation (n = 10) for 0.5, 2, 20 and 200 ng mL-1 of Bi were 3.5, 2.8, 2.2 and 1.3%, respectively, the limit of detection was 0.35 ng mL-1, and a graph of emission intensity vs. log. Bi concentration. was rectilinear for ~1 ng mL-1 to ~10 µg mL-1. The method of standard additions was used for actual determinations, in the presence of 0.1 M thiourea to minimize interference. Results for various geological reference standards, standard copper and standard aluminum alloys (digestion procedures described) agreed well with reported or certified values.
Bismuth Spectrophotometry Sample preparation Interferences Reference material Standard additions calibration Volatile generation Volatile generation

"Simultaneous Determination Of Iron And Titanium In Aluminum Alloys By FIA System With Multi-wavelength Detection"
Bunseki Kagaku 1992 Volume 41, Issue 2 Pages 101-104
Kitamura, T.;Koshino, K.;Yamane, T.

Abstract: Sample was injected into a carrier stream of 0.6 M HCl (0.7 mL min-1) which merged with a stream of 2.5% of diantipyrylmethane in 0.6 M HCl (0.5 mL min-1). The mixture was passed through a reaction coil (2.5 m x 0.5 mm) at 50°C before its absorbance was measured at 388 and 540 nm. Results obtained for standard samples agreed well with reference values; coefficient of variation were 3%. Sample throughput was ~25 h-1. The anal. is based on the complex formation of Fe and Ti with diantipyrylmethane in a continuous-flow system and online monitoring of absorption spectra of those metal complexes. Concentrations of Fe and Ti are calculated by solving 2 simultaneous equations consisting of the absorbances measured at 2 chosen wavelengths of λ1 and λ2 and molar absorption coefficient of each metal complex at λ1 and λ2. The anal. result of standard Al alloy samples by the proposed FIA system (λ1 = 388 nm, λ2 = 540 nm) showed good reproducibility with relative standard deviations <3%. The sample throughout was ~25/h.
Iron Titanium Spectrophotometry Heated reaction Reference material Complexation

"Stopped-flow Flow Injection Method For The Simultaneous Determination Of Elements - Simultaneous Determination Of Iron, Titanium And Vanadium"
Fenxi Huaxue 1993 Volume 21, Issue 11 Pages 1289-1292
Wang, J.H.;He, R.H.

Abstract: The method described previously (Wang et al., Ibid., 1993, 21, 593) was used to determine Fe, Ti and V in Al alloy and synthetic samples. The method was based on the formation of I3- by the Cr(VI)-I- reaction, which was catalyse by the analytes. Aluminum alloy (0.2 g) was dissolved in 10 mL of 30% H2O2 and 6 mL of 6 M HCl, the solution was boiled for 30 min and treated with Zn powder. The solution was adjusted to pH 2.1 and diluted to 200 mL with water. The solution was injected into a carrier solution of 0.1% starch solution at 3.8 ml/min, treated with 122 mM KI at 2.8 ml/min and 1.5 mM Cr(VI) at 2.8 ml/min at 25°C in two PTFE reaction coils (30 cm and 15 cm) before detection at 590 nm. The average sampling rate was 90 h-1. Calibration graphs were linear for up to 2.2, 3.1 and 1.8 µg/ml of Fe(II), Ti(III) and V(IV), respectively. Recoveries were 93.7-107.9% for Fe, 93.2-108.4% for Ti and 92.6-106.3% for V; their corresponding detection limits were 0.012, 0.02 and 0.08 µg/ml. Tolerance levels are for several ions; Sb(III) interfered seriously.
Iron Titanium Vanadium Spectrophotometry Stopped-flow Multidetection Interferences

"Fluorescence Spectrophotometric Determination Of Trace Manganese(II) By An Optical Fibre Kinetic Method - Flow Injection Analysis With A Manganese/thiamine/sodium Periodate System"
Fenxi Huaxue 1995 Volume 23, Issue 3 Pages 299-301
Wang, J.F.;Zhang, Z.J.

Abstract: Standard Mn(II) solution was mixed with 8 mL 0.1 M nitrilotriacetic acid and water was added to 25 mL. A portion of the solution was injected into the flow system and mixed with streams (2.5 ml/min) of 0.15 mM thiamine and 0.4 mM NaIO4 in a reaction tube (500 cm x 2 mm i.d.) before entering an optical fiber luminescence detection flow cell (3 cm x 2 mm i.d.) for detection with use of a Shimadzu RF-540 fluorescence spectrophotometer. The calibration graph was linear for 8.2 ng/ml to 1 µg/ml of Mn and the detection limit was 0.4 ng/ml. The RSD (n = 11) was 0.8%. There was no interference. The method was applied to the direct assay of Al and Al alloys. Sampling frequency was 45 runs/h.
Manganese(II) Fluorescence Interferences Optical fiber Kinetic

"Differential Kinetic Method For The Simultaneous Determination Of Iron, Nickel And Copper With Kalman Filtering Flow Injection Analysis Stopped-flow Spectrophotometry"
Fenxi Huaxue 1995 Volume 23, Issue 10 Pages 1126-1131
Ye, Y.Z.;Han, H.Y.;Chen, Y.H.

Abstract: A sample was treated with 6 drops 10% hydroxylamine hydrochloride, 1 drop of 2,4-dinitrophenol. Next, 0.1 M NaOH was added until neutrality (yellow) followed by 1 mL of sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer of pH 4.5 then water was added to 25 mL. After heating at 30°C, the sample was injected (1.5 ml/min) in to the analyzer to mix with a carrier stream (2.5 mL ethanolic 0.03% 2-(3,5-dibromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol/buffer pH 4.5/aqueous 10% Triton X-100 and H2O) at flow-rate of 5 ml/min. Absorbance was measured at 575 nm. Data was collected automatically on a PC for 1 min in order to calculate the amount of Fe, Ni and Cu by the Kalman filtering method. Cobalt(II) interfered seriously. The method was applied to the analysis of synthetic samples and Al alloys; recoveries were 90.5-103.5%. Detection was at µg level.
Copper Iron Nickel Spectrophotometry Kalman filter Stopped-flow Kinetic Computer Interferences Triton X Surfactant

"Chemiluminescence Analysis With Reversed Flow Injection Analysis: Studies On Anthracene Green-hydrogen Peroxide-nickel(II) Chemiluminescence System And Its Application"
Fenxi Shiyanshi 1993 Volume 12, Issue 6 Pages 35-37
Yu, Z.A.;Li, H.

Abstract: In NaOH, Ni2+ accelerated the oxidative chemiluminescence of anthracene green (I) by H2O2. A reversed-FIA system (diagram given) was used in the determination of Ni2+ in Al alloy by the cited method. Sample (0.1 g) was dissolved in 10 mL of 50% aqueous HCl and filtered, the filtrate was diluted to 100 mL with water and a 2 mL portion of the solution was adjusted to pH 3 for measuring chemiluminescence intensity by use of the FIA system. Water was used as carrier stream (6 ml/min) and 0.4 mM I and 2 M H2O2 were used as reaction solution (5 ml/min). The calibration graph was linear from 5 ng/ml to 0.1 µg/ml of Ni2+ and the detection limit was 0.11 ng/ml. When determining 10 ng/ml of Ni2+, the RSD (n = 11) was 2.2%. Tolerance levels are given for 32 common ions. Interference caused by Co2+ could be masked with Na2S2O3.
Nickel(II) Chemiluminescence Reverse Interferences

"Thin-layer Electrolytic Cell Determination Of Copper By Flow Injection Method"
Gaodeng Xuexiao Huaxue Xuebao 1989 Volume 10, Issue 5 Pages 554-556
Zhu, Y.;Huang, S.;Long, Y.;Liu, H.;Zeng, L.

Abstract: The construction and characteristics are described of a thin-layer electrolytic cell with a vitreous carbon working electrode (1.21 cm2) for amperometric determination of Cu. Copper was determined in NH4Cl - aqueous NH3 medium at -0.30 V vs. SCE. The calibration graph (peak current vs. concentration.) was rectilinear from 1 µM to 10 mM Cu. The method was applied in the determination of Cu in aluminum alloys and steel.
Copper Electrode Amperometry Apparatus Detector

"Analyses Of Some Practical Samples By FI-MPT-AES"
Jilin Daxue Ziran Kexue Xuebao 1998 Volume 36, Issue 1 Pages 91-93
Zou Mingqiang; Wang Daning; Zhao Xiaojun; Liang Feng; Yuan Mao; Zhang Hanqi; Jin Qinhan

Abstract: The analyzes of some practical samples by FI-MPT-AES (flow injection-microwave plasma torch-at. emission spectrometry) were carried out for samples including Al alloy, alloy steel, catalyst, and biological samples. The method established is acceptable for analyzing the practical samples.
Spectrophotometry

"Determination Of Total Rare Earths In Rare Earth Aluminum Alloys By Reverse Flow Injection Analysis"
Yejin Fenxi 1993 Volume 13, Issue 6 Pages 18-20
Fu, Lianshe; Ren, Ying

Abstract: A rapid and simple method for the determination of the total rare earths by reverse flow injection analysis is described. The method is based on the procedure of rare earths in 1.2 mol/L HCl as the carry stream and injecting DBC-chlorophosphonazo (DBC-CPA). The consumption of DBC-CPA is minimized and the tolerate amt of Ca and Fe are increased by about one order of magnitude as compared with that of manual method. The method was used to determination of the total rare earths in rare earth aluminum alloys with satisfactory results.
Metals, rare earth Reverse Method comparison