University of North Florida
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Stuart Chalk, Ph.D.
Department of Chemistry
University of North Florida
Phone: 1-904-620-1938
Fax: 1-904-620-3535
Website: @unf

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Classification: Agricultural -> grain -> oat

Citations 5

"Extractable Sulfate-sulfur, Total Sulfur And Trace-element Determinations In Plant Material By Flow Injection Analysis. 2. Total Sulfur And Copper, Zinc, Manganese And Iron In Plant Material"
Anal. Lett. 1990 Volume 23, Issue 4 Pages 675-702
D. L. Heanes

Abstract: Oven-dried samples (200 to 500 mg) were digested (at 100 samples per day) with HNO3 containing HClO, NH4NO3 and CaCl2 in a Pyrex tube at 60°C to 220°C (details given). The cooled digest was diluted to 15 mL with water and a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was used for the turbidimetric determination of total S in the supernatant solution, with the use of aqueous 0.01% Brij 35 as carrier solution, aqueous 1% Na ascorbate as sample diluent, and 0.25% of Na2EDTA in 0.1 M NaOH and 11% of BaCl2.2H2O in 1% gum arabic as reagent solution (valve switch timing sequence given). The throughput rate was 120 samples h-1. Calibration graphs were rectilinear for 1 to 200 mg mL-1 of sulfate-S in 0.25 M HClO4. The detection limit was 8 mg kg-1 in plant material. In the determination of 100 mg L-1 of sulfate-S in 0.254HClO4 and the analysis of kale, lucerne hay and oat grain, the coefficient of variation was 0.7% (n = 10). The recovery of 0.2% of S in plants was 97 to 104%. There was no interference from 6% of Ca, 5% of Mg, Na or K, 2.5% of Si, or 0.5% of P or N. A procedure for the FIA of Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe with AAS detection was also described.
Sulfate Sulfur Copper Zinc Manganese Iron Sample preparation Spectrophotometry Turbidimetry Dilution Calibration Detection limit Interferences

"Genotypic Effects On β-glucan Content Of Oat Lines Grown In Two Consecutive Years"
Cereal Chem. 1992 Volume 69, Issue 3 Pages 262-265
H. S. Lim, P. J. White, and K. J. Frey

Abstract: Oat lines (102 total) grown in 1989 and 1990 were analyzed for β-glucan by flow injection analysis (FIA) to determine the influence of variety and growing season on β-glucan contents. The correlation between FIA and the AACC enzymatic method for measuring β-glucan content was 0.97. The average coefficient of variation for the FIA measurements per sample was 1.2%, and the oat lines showed a normal distribution for β-glucan contents in both years, ranging from 3.0 to 6.5% in 1989 and from 3.9 to 6.4% in 1990. Mean β-glucan contents for the two years were the same, 5.1%, but oat varieties differed significantly, even when tested via the mean square for year times variety.

"Molecular-weight Distribution And (1->3)(1->4)-β-d-glucan Content Of Consecutive Extracts Of Various Oat And Barley Cultivars"
Cereal Chem. 1997 Volume 74, Issue 4 Pages 476-480
Michael U. Beer (), Peter J. Wood (,), and John Weisz ()

Abstract: The content and molecular weight (MW) of β-glucan in extracts from a selection of oat and barley cultivars were compared using flow injection analysis and high performance size-exclusion chromatography From 60 to 75% of the β-glucan was extracted from oat and waxy barley by hot water (90°C) containing heat-stable α-amylase, whereas just 50-55% was extracted from nonwaxy barley. Consecutive extractions with hot water and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) extracted 65% (nonwaxy barley) or 75-80% (oat and waxy barley) of the total β-glucan. An extraction with sodium hydroxide and sodium borohydride (NaOH/NaBH4) increased the percentage of β-glucan extracted to 86-100% but decreased the MW. The MW of β-glucan in the oat cultivars selected was significantly higher than those in the barley cultivars. The β-glucan extracted from the nonwaxy barley cultivars showed significantly higher peak MW than that from the waxy barley cultivars. 26 References
β-Glucan Sample preparation Extraction

"Genotype And Environment Effects On Oat β-glucan Concentration"
Crop Sci. 1991 Volume 31, Issue 6 Pages 1517-1520
D. M. Peterson

Abstract: Oat (Avena sativa L.) and oat bran have beneficial effects as human food and animal feed, including the lowering or serum low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This effect has been attributed to the high concentration of (1 fwdarw 3) (1 fwdarw 4)-β-D-glucan in oat. To efficiently breed oat cultivars higher in this beneficial constituent, the influence of genotype and environment must first be determined. Twelve cultivars were grown in nine different locations in randomized complete blocks to measure the level and variation in β-glucan concentration. Samples were dehulled, ground, and the β-glucan concentration measured by a flow injection analysis system. Significant differences were found for the main effects of genotype and location and their interaction. The variance ratio for the interaction was much smaller than those for the main effects and, except for one location, the rank order of the cultivars was generally similar. The b-glucan concentration was not correlated with 100-groat weight. It was concluded that selection for high β-glucan in a single environment should be representative of relative performance in other environments.

"Effects Of Ecological And Cropping Factors On β-glucan Content In Oats"
Rostl. Vyroba 1996 Volume 42, Issue 1 Pages 29-33
Hubik, K.; Tichy, F.

Abstract: Exact field trials were carried out mostly with registered oat genotypes at Bystrice nad Pernstejnem and Krukanice in 1993. Effects of the location, genotype and nitrogen fertilization on the content of water-soluble β-glucans in grain dry matter were investigated. It was determined on the basis of increasing calcofluor fluorescence emission (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) caused by binding this dye to β-glucans. A method of flow injection analysis as modified by Jorgensen (1988) using a device of his own construction was used. Barley β-glucans were used as a standard. Results were expressed in percentage. Experimental data were processed by analysis of variance using STATGRAPHICS program. Results of the trial are summarized in Tab. II. At significance level of P = 0.05, β-glucan content in oat grain was the most affected by the genotype and then by the location. Effects of fertilization were not significant. Furthermore, Tab. II suggests highly significant (P = 0.05) interactions, such as genotype x location and genotype x fertilization, where the genotype x location interaction shows a higher proportion as determined by F-ratio. Statistical results obtained by analysis of variance are presented in greater detail in Tabs. III to V. Tab. III evaluates effects of the genotype on β-glucan content in oat grain. On the average of two locations, the highest content of β-glucan was determined in the genotype Adam (3.0%) which significantly differed from the other genotypes studied. The genotype Zlatak and line KR 9506 showed tile lowest average β-glucan contents both being 1.9%. The other genotypes can be divided into two groups between which is a significant difference. The first group includes genotypes David, Auron and Ardo. The last one is a transition to the other group which consists of Abel and Flamingsnova. Effects of fertilization variants on β-glucan content is given in Tab. V. The difference between the average β-glucan content in oat grain in all of investigated genotypes in the variant with the highest effect, i.e. N-a and N-bl and the variant with the lowest effect, N-0, was 0.2% only. That corresponds with the results in Tab. II which showed insignificant effects of the fertilization variant on β-glucan content in oat grain. The other fertilization variants, N-c and N-b, were transitional ones and did not show significant influence. The last factor which can affect β-glucan content in oat grain was the location. Tab. VI shows highly significant difference in the average β-glucan content of all genotypes studied at two locations. The effect of the location on the average β-glucan content in grain of eight genotypes is illustrated in Fig.2. Six genotypes (Abel, Ardo, Auron, David, Zlatak and KR 9046) had average β-glucan contents higher at Bystrice nad Pernstejnem. The highest difference as compared to the location Krukanice was found in the genotypes Ardo and Auron. In contrast, Adam and Flamingsnova reached the highest β-glucan content in grain at the location Krukanice. Among all genotypes, the genotype Adam showed the highest difference (1%). With regard to highly significant differences in β-glucan content in grain of grown genotypes at both locations, it is necessary to study this character under different soil and climatic conditions, and then to elaborate variety zoning.
β-Glucan Fluorescence